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Bibliography and Author's Preface

Joint Dys References


by William Kaufman, M.D., Ph.D. (1949)
Copyright C 2001 Charlotte Kaufman. Reprinted with permission.
Edited by Andrew W. Saul



1. Albert, P. W., Scheer, B. T. and Deuel, H. J., Jr. The Effect of 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid on the Excretion of Niacin by the Rat. J. Biol. Chem. 175:479, 1948.

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3.  Alexander, F., French, T. M., et al. Studies in Psychosomatic Medicine. New York. Ronald Press. 1948.

4. Alexander, F., and French, T. M., et al. Psychoanalytic Therapy. New York. Ronald Press. 1946.

5. Alvarez, W. C. Nervousness Indigestion and Pain. New York. Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. 1943.

6.  Alvarez, W. C.  Marked Abdominal Bloating Not Due to Gas but to a Neurosis of the Abdominal Wall. Trans. Asso. Amer. Physicians 1x:86, 1947.

7. Axefrod, H. E., Morgan, A. F., and Lepkovsky, S. The Fate of Tryptophane in Pyridoxine-Deficient and Normal Dogs. J. Biol. Chem. 160:155, 1945. 

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28.   Cecil, R. L.  Textbook of Medicine. Phila. W. B. Saunders Co. 1947. 

29.  Chapman, W. P., Finesinger, J. E., Jones, C. M., and Cobb, S. Measurements of Pain Sensitivity in Patients with Psychoneurosis. Arch. Neur. and Psychiat. 57:321, 1947. 

30.  Cheldelin, V. H., and Williams, R. R.  Studies of the Average American Diet. J. Nutr. 26:417, 1943.

31.  Clarke, T. W.  Allergy of the Central Nervous System. Ann. Allergy 2:189, 1944.  

32.  Cleckley, H. M., Sydenstricker, V.P., and Geeslin, L. E.  Nicotinic Acid in the Treatment of Atypical Psychotic States Associated with Malnutrition. J.A.M.A. 112:2107, 1939.

33.  Comroe, B. I.  Arthritis and Allied Conditions. Phila. Lea & Febiger. 1944.

34.  Cooper, W.  A Simplified Ahibrometer. Ann. Surg. 114:316, 1941. 

35.  Cowgill, C. R.  Recent Advances in our Knowledge of Vitamins. J. Mt. Sinai Hosp. 14:80, 1947. 

36.  Creed, R. S., Denny-Brown, D., Ecoles, J. C., Liddell, E.G. T., and Sherrington, C. S. Reflex Activity of the Spinal Cord. Oxford. Oxford University Press. 1932. 

37.   Daun, W. J., and Darby, W. J.  The Appraisal of Nutritional Status (Nutriture) in Humans. Physiol. Rev. 25: 326, 1945.

38.   Danowski, T. S., Winkler, A. W., and Peters, J. P. Tissue Calcification and Renal Failure Produced by Massive Dose Vitamin D Therapy of Arthritis. Ann. Int. Med. 23:22, 1945.

39.   Darby, W. J.   The Oral Manifestations of Iron Deficiency. J.A.M.A. 130:830, 1946.

40.   Dees, S. C., and Lowenbach, H. The Electroencephalograms of Allergic Children. Ann. Allergy 6:99, 1948.

41. Drake, F. R.  The latrogenic Factors in Illness. Am. J. Med. Sci. 215:103, 1948.

42.  Drill, V. A., and Loomis, T. A.  Production of Functional and Fatty Changes in the Liver by a Chronic Vitamin B Complex Deficiency, and Interrelationships with Protein Intake. J. Nutr. 35:333, 1948.

43.   Dunbar, H. F. Emotions and Bodily Changes; a Survey of Literature on Psychosomatic Interrelationships. New York. Columbia Univ. Press. 1938.

44.  Elvehjem, C. A.  Tryptophan and Niacin Relations and Their Implications to Human Nutrition. J. Am. Diet. Ass. 24:653, 1948.

45.  Elvehjem, C. A., and Krehl, W. H.  Imbalance and Dietary Interrelationships in Nutrition. J.A.M.A. 135:279, 1947. 

46.  Engel, C. L., Ferris, E. B., and Logan, M. Hyperventilation: Analysis of Clinical Symptomatology. Ann. Int. Med. 27:683, 1947. 

47.   Engel, C. L. and Margolin, S.C. Neuropsychiatric Disturbances in Internal Disease. Arch. Int. Med. 70:236, 1942.

48.   Ershoff, B. H.  Conditioning Factors in Nutritional Disease. Physiol. Rev. 28:107, 1948.

49.  Fenichel, O.  Nature and Classification of the So-called Psychosomatic Phenomena. Psychoanalyt. Quart. 14:287, 1945.  

50.   Fenichel, O.  The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. New York. W. W. Norton Co., Inc. 1945. 

51.  Field, H., Jr., and Robinson, W. D.  The Absence of Reactions Following Therapeutic Doses of Nicotinic Acid Amide. Am. J. Med. Sci. 199:275, 1940.

52. Flind, J., and Barber, H. S.   The Psychogenic Basis of Some So-called Rheumatic Pains. Quart. J. Med. 14:57, 1945. 

53. Frank, A. Review of Some Fundamental Considerations in Psychotherapy. Dis. Nerv. System 8:69, 1947. 

54.  Frankau, I. M.  Acceleration of Coordinated Muscular Effort by Nicotinamide. Brit. Med. 3. 1943,2, 601.

55. Freeman, C. L.  Physiological Psychology. New York. D. VanNostrand Co. 1948.

56. Freeman, S., Rhoads, P.S., and Yeager, L. B.  Toxic Manifestations Associated with Prolonged Ertron Ingestion. J.A.M.A. 130:197, 1946. 

57. Freund, H. A., Steiner, C., Leichtentritt, B., and Price, A. E.   Nodular Polymyositis in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Science 101:202, 1945.

58. Freund, H. A., Steiner, C., Leichtentritt, B., and Price, A. E. Peripheral Nerves in Chronic Atrophic Arritis. J. Lab. and Clin. Med. 27: 1256, 1942.

59. Frost, J. W., Sunderman, F. W., and Leopold, I.S.  Prolonged Hypercalcemia and Metastatic Calcification of the Sclera Following the Use of Vitamin D in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Artluitis. Am. J. Med. Sci. 214:639, 1947.

60. Citelson, M.  The Role of Anxiety in Somatic Disease. Ann. Int. Med. 28:289, 1948.

61.  Cliebe, P. A., and Kerr, W. J. Recognition of Emotional Factors in Allergic Manifestations. Am. J. Med. 3:607, 1947. 

62.  Cobell, O.  Functions of Nicotinamide in Carbohydrate Metabolism. Z. Ces. Exptl. Med. 109:96, 1941.  

63.  Craubard, D. J., Kovacs, J., and Ritter, H. H. The Management of Destructive Arthritis of the Hip by Means of Intravenous Procaine. Ann. Int. Med. 28:1106, 1948.

64.  Greenhill,  J. P., and Freed, S. C.  The Electrolyte Therapy of Premenstrual Distress. J.A.M.A. 117:504, 1941.

65.  Croliman, A., Harrison, T. R., Mason, M. F., Baxter, J., Crampton, J., and Reichsman, F. Sodium Restriction in the Diet for Hypertension. J.A.M.A. 129:533, 1945.

66.  Groom, D.   Some Applications of Psychiatry in General Medicine. J.A.M.A. 135:403, 1947.

67.  Halliday, J. L.   The Concept of Psychosomatic Rheumatism. Ann. Int Med. 15:666, 1941.

68.  Halliday, J. L.  Psychological Factors in Rheumatism. Brit. Med. 3.1937, 1, 213 and 264.

69.  Handler, P.  The Effect of Excessive Nicotinamide Feeding on Rabbits and Guinea Pigs. J. Biol. Chem. 154:203, 1944. 

70.  Handler, P., and Dann, W. J  The Inhibition of Rat Growth by Nicotinamide. J. BioL Chem. 146:357, 1942.

71.  Handler, P., and Kohn, H. I.  The Mechanism of Cozymase Synthesis in the Human Esythrceyte; a Comparison of the Roles of Nicotinic Acid and Nicotinarnide. J. Biol. Chem. 150:447, 1943.

72.  Hankes, L. V., Henderson, L. M., Brickson, W. L., and Elvehjem, C. A. Effect of Amino Acids on the Growth of Rats on Niacin-Tryptophan-Deficient Rations. J. BioL Chem. 174:873, 1948.

73.  Hansson, K. C.   Body Mechanics and Posture. J.A.M.A. 128:947, 1945. 

74.  Harris, H. J.  Brucellosis. BulL N.Y. Acad. Med. 22:147, 1946.

75.  Hart, A. D.  Psychosomatic Diagnosis. J.A.M.A. 136:147, 1948.

76.  Heidelberger, C., Cullberg, M. E., Morgan, A. F., and Lepkovsky, S. Concerning the Mechanism of the Mammalian Conversion of Tryptophan into Kynurenine, Kynurenic Acid, and Nicotinic Acid. J. BioL Chem. 175:471, 1948.

77. Hench, P.S., and Boland, E. W.  The Management of Chronic Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases among Soldiers of the United States Army. Ann. Int. Med. 24:808, 1946. 

78. Hench, P.S., and Rosenberg, E. F. Palindromic Rheumatism. Arch. Int Med. 73:293, 1944.

79.   Hench, P.S., et al.  Rheumatism and Arthritis: Review of American and English Literature of Recent Years (Ninth Rheumatism Review). Ann. Int. Med. 28:66 and 809, 1948. 

80.   Henderson, C. R., Wheeler, N. C., Johnson, H. C., Cogswell, R. C., Jr., Berryman, C. H., Ivy, A. C., Friedemann, T. E., and Youmans, J. B.   Changes in Personality Appraisal Associated with a Restricted Intake of B Vitamins and Protein. Am. J. Med. Sci. 213:488, 1947.

81.  Hill, L.W.  Food Sensitivity in 100 Asthmatic Children. N.E.J. Med. 238:657, 1948.

82.  Hoagland, C. L., Ward, S. M., and Shank, R. E. Synthesis of Coenzyme and Factor V in Erythrocytes, and the Excretion of Nicotinic Acid Derivatives in the Urine Following the Ingestion of Nicotinic Acid and Nicotinamide. J. Biol. Chem. 151:369, 1943.

83.   Hoch, P. H. (Ed.)  Failures in Psychiatric Treatment. New York. Crane & Stratton. 1948.

84.   Howorth,B.  Dynamic Posture. J.A.M.A. 131:1398, 1946.

85.  Hundley, J. M., and Bond, H. W.  A Study of the Conversion of Isotopic Nicotinic Acid to Ni-Methylnicotinarnide. J. Biol. Chem. 173:513, 1948.

86.   Hutchison, J. H.  Non-articular Rheumatism in the Army: Symptomatology, Aetiology, Treatment Glasgow Med. J. 37:33, 1942. 

87.  Jacobson, E.  You Must Relax. New York. Whittlesey House. 1942.

88.  Jacobson, S.D., Leichtentritt, B., and Lyons, R. H.  The Effect of Acid and Alkaline Salts on Some Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Am. J. Med. Sci. 204:540, 1942. 

89.   Johnson, A., Shapiro, L. B., and Alexander, F.  Preliminary Report on a Psychosomatic Study of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Psycho-somatic Med. 9:295, 1947.

90.  Johnson, B. C., Wiese, A. C., Mitchell, H. H., and Nevens, W. B. The Metabolism of Nicotinic Acid and Its Role in the Nutrition of the Calf. J. Biol. Chem. 167:729, 1947.

91.   Jonsson, E.   Arthralgia Due to Nervous Causes. Acta Med. Scand. 123:529, 1946. 

92.   Junqueira, P. B., and Schweigert, B. S.  Urinary Excretion of Nicotinic Acid and Ni-methylnicotinamide by Rats Fed Tryptophan and Diets Deficient in Various B Vitamins. J. Biol. Chem. 175:535, 1948. 

93.  Karnosh, L. J.  Psychosomatic Aspects of Allergy. Psychiat. Quart 18:618, 1944. 

94.   Karpman, B.   Psychotherapy, Minor and Major. Quart. Rev. of Psychiat and Neur. 2:553, 1947.

95.   Kamman, P., Beck, R. D., and Wiseman, R. D.  Vitamin D ("Ertron') Therapy in Arthritis. J.A.M.A. 134:688, 1947.

96.  Kaufman, W.  Unpublished Observations. 

97.  Kaufman, W.  The Common Form of Niacin Amide Deficiency Disease: Amacinamidosis. Bridgeport, Conn. 1943.

98.  Kennedy, A. F.  The Problem of Psychogenesis in Non-articular Rheumatism. Rheumatism 4. 204, 1948.

99.   Kern, R. A.  The Role of Water Balance in the Clinical Manifestations of Allergy. Am. J. Med. Sci. 199:778, 1940.

100.  Kraines, S. H.  The Therapy of the Neuroses and Psychoses. Phila. Lea & Febiger, 1948. 

101.  Krehl, W. A., De la Huerga, J., and Elvehjem, C. A.  Tryptophane Studies. I. The Effect of Niacin on the Utilization of Tryptophane. J. Biol. Chem. 164:551, 1946. 

102.  Krehl, W. A., Henderson, L. M., De la Huerga, J., and Elvehjem, C. A.  Relation of Amino Acid Imbalance to Niacin-Tryptophane Deficiency in Crowing Rats. J. Biol. Chem. 166:531, 1946.

103.  Krehl, W. A., Sarma, P.S., and Elvehjem, C. A.  The Effect of Protein on the Nicotinic Acid and Tryptophane Requirement of the Crowing Rat. J. Biol. Chem. 162:403, 1946.

104.  Kruse, H. D. A Concept of the Deficiency States. Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. 20:245, 1942.

105.  Kruse, H. D.  The Lingual Manifestations of Aniacinosis, with Especial Consideration of the Detection of Early Changes by Biomicroscopy. Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. 20:262, 1942.

106.  Kruse, H. D. The Gingival Manifestations of Avitaminosis C, with Especial Consideration of the Detection of Early Changes by Biomicroscopy. Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. 20:290, 1942.

107.  Kruse, H. D. Medical Evaluation of Nutritional Status I. J.A.M.A. 121:584, 1943. II. J.A.M.A. 121:669, 1943.

108.  Kruse, H. D.  The Place of Nutrition in the Relationship Between Environment and Health. Milbank Mem. Fund Quart. 26:41, 1948.

109.  Kruse, H. D., Bessey, O. A., Jolliffe, N., McLester, J. S., Tisdall, F. F., and Wilder, R. M.  Inadequate Diets and Nutritional Deficiencies in the United States: Their Prevalence and Significance. Nat. Res. Council Bull. 109. 

110.   Kubie, L. S.  The Basis of a Classification of Disorders from the Psychosomatic Standpoint. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med. 20:46, 1944. 

111.  Kubie, L. S.   The Nature of Psychotherapy. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med. 19:183, 1943.

112.   Kuiken, K. A., Lyman, C. M., and Hale, F.  The Tryptophan Content of Meat. J. Biol. Chem. 171: 561, 1947.

113.  Kurta, C. M., Orth, O. S., and Sepulveda, C.  Vasodilatation in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Wisc. Med. J. 44: 761, 1945. 

114.  Kyhos, E. D., Cordon, E. S., Kimble, M. S., and Sevringhaus, E. L. The Minimum Ascorbic Acid Need of Adults. J. Nutr. 27:271, 1944.

115.  Leblond, C. P., and Chaulin-Servmie're, J.  Spontaneous Beriberi of the Monkey as Compared with Experimental Avitaminosis. Am. J. Med. Sci. 203:100, 1942.

116.  Lepkovsky, S., Roboz, E., and Haagen-Smit, A. J.  Xanthurenic Acid and Its Role in the Tryptophane Metabolism of Pyridoxine Deficient Rats. J. Biol. Chem. 149:195, 1943.

117.  Levine, M.  Psychotherapy in Medical Practice. New York. Macmillan Co. 1943. 

118.  Lewis, H. B.  Proteins in Nutrition. J.A.M.A. 138:207, 1948. 

119.  Ling, C., Hegsted, D. M., and Stare, F. J. The Effect of Pyridoxine Deficiency on the Tryptophan-Niacin Transformation in Rats. J. BioL Chem. 174:803, 1948.

120.  Luecke, R. W., McMillen, W. N., Thorp, F., Jr., and Tull, C.  The Relationship of Nicotinic Acid, Tryptophane and Protein in the Nutrition of the Pig. J. Nutr. 33:251, 1947.

121.  Margolis, H. M.  Diagnosis and Treatment of Arthritis and Allied Disorders. New York. Paul B. Hoeber, Inc. 1941.

122.   Masserman, J. H.  Principles of Dynamic Psychiatry. Phila. W. B. Saunders Co. 1946.

123.  McGregor, H. C.  The Psychological Factor in Rheumatic Disease. J. Roy. Inst Pub. Health and Hygiene 4:169, 1941.  

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125.  Menninger, W. C.   The Problem of the Neurotic Patient. Ann. Int Med. 27:487, 1947. 

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129.  Mitchell, H. K., Nyc, J. F., and Owen, R. D.  Utilization by the Rat of 3-hydroxyanthranilic Acid as a Substitute for Nicotinamide. J. Biol. Chem. 175:433, 1948.

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131.  Moritz, A. R.  The Pathology of Trauma. Phila. Lea & Febiger. 1942.  

132.  Morrison, L. R., Short, C. L., Ludwig, A. O., and Schwab, R. S.  The Neuromuscular System in Rheumatoid Arthritis; Electromyographic and Histologic Observations. Am. J. Med. Sci. 214:33, 1947.  

133.  Murphy, G.  Personality. New York. Harper & Brothers. 1947.

134.   Naide, M., Sayen, A., and Comroe, B. I.  Characteristic Vascular Pattern in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arch. Int Med. 76:139, 1945.

135.  Neuwahi, F. H.  Action of Nicotinic Acid on Carbohydrate Metabolism. Lancet (London) 1943, 2,348.

136.  Newton, F. C., and MacGregor, C. A.  Spasm and Fibrosis of the Sphincter Am due to Reflex Action. N.E.J. Med. 239:113, 1948.

137.  Nicholson, J. H., and Falk, A.  Night Cramps in Young Men. N.E.J. Med. 238:556, 1945. 

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140.  Pemberton, R.  Developments in Arthritis. Am. J. Med. Sci. 209:364, 1945.

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142.  Perera, G. A., and Blood, D. W.  The Relationship of Sodium Chloride to Hypertension. J. Clin. Invest. 26:1109, 1947.

143.  Perera, G. A., and Blood, D. W.   Disturbance in Salt and Water Metabolism in Hypertension. Am. J. Med. 1:602, 1946.

144.  Peters, J. P.   The Role of Sodium in the Production of Edema. N.E. J. Med. 289:353, 1948. 

145.  Pickard, N. S.   Rheumatoid Arthritis in Children. Arch. InL Med. 80:771, 1947. 

146.  Porter, C. C., Clark, I., and Silber, R. H.  The Effect of Pyridoxine Analogues on Tryptophane Metabolism in the Rat. J. Biol. Chem. 167:573, 1947.

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152.  Randolph, T. G.   Allergy as Causative Factor of Fatigue, Irritability and Behavior Problems in Children. J. Pediat 31:560, 1947.  

153.  Randolph, T. G.  Fatigue and Weakness of Allergic Origin (Allergic Toxemia) to he Differentiated from "Nervous Fatigue" or Neurasthenia. Ann. Allergy 3:418, 1945.

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178. Sarett, H.P., and Goldsmith, G. A.  The Effect of Trytophane on the Excretion of Nicotinic Acid Derivatives in Humans. J. Biol. Chem. 167:293, 1947.

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Author's Preface

This monograph records certain clinical observations which I have made over a period of years in the course of the private practice of internal medicine. As will be demonstrated by objective measurement, joint dysfunction (impaired joint mobility) was exceedingly prevalent among the patients studied. It will be seen that the common form of joint dysfunction was corrected or ameliorated in time by adequate niacinamide therapy, and recurred in time when adequate niacinamide therapy was discontinued.

While the diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated joint dysfunction presented few difficulties, the patient with joint dysfunction often was troubled by the articular and non-articular symptoms of four commonly occurring complicating syndromes which required successful therapy concurrently with the niacinamide treatment of joint dysfunction if the patient was to feel well. For this reason, these complicating syndromes and their treatment are described in some detail.

It is hoped that the methods of study and treatment presented in this volume will be of use to other physicians in the medical management of patients who have joint dysfunction alone, or joint dysfunction and one or more of the four complicating syndromes.

I am greatly indebted to Dr. Robert Sterling Palmer in many ways, especially for his critical reading of the manuscript, for his constructive suggestions and for his wise counsel. Thanks are due to Dr. Louis H. Cohen, who read the manuscript critically and gave helpful suggestions. I am grateful to my wife, Charlotte S. Kaufman, for her encouragement and valuable assistance in all phases of this work.

640 Brooklawn Avenue
Bridgeport, Connecticut
March 1,1949


Andrew W. Saul


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